What is Cardiovascular Diseases?
Cardiovascular Diseases or CVD are among the most widely spread medical health conditions. Almost half of the population of the United States is at risk of CVD, including heart diseases, and the number is rising more, primarily because of the pandemic.
While cardiovascular diseases are deadly and common factors behind sudden deaths, they are also preventable and treatable. This blog will help you understand this alarming medical issue, its types, causes, symptoms, preventive measures, available treatment methods, and lifestyle changes.
An overview of the Medical condition
The cardiovascular system is responsible for blood circulation in the body, also known as the circulatory system. It consists of the heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases are the most common reason for death worldwide.
In the United States, one out of every four deaths occurs due to cardiovascular disease, which concludes that about 610,000 people die from this medical health condition every year. Cardiovascular diseases do not discriminate and are the leading cause of death for several white people, black people, and Hispanics.
Types of Cardiovascular disease?
CVD comprises several conditions; some of these can develop simultaneously or lead to other medical emergencies within the group. Diseases and conditions likely to affect the heart include angina, arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, congenital heart disease, heart failure, and heart attack.
Other conditions that can result in cardiovascular disease include dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitral regurgitation, pulmonary stenosis, aortic stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, or radiation heart disease.
Vascular diseases affect several regions attached to the heart, such as arteries, veins, or capillaries. So, Cardiovascular disease types may include:
- Peripheral artery disease, which causes narrowness in the arteries and reduces the blood flow to the limbs
- Aneurysm, is a bulge in the artery (or artery enlargement) that is most likely to rupture and bleed
- Atherosclerosis, the formation of plaque along the walls of blood vessels causing narrowness and restriction of oxygen-rich blood flow
- Raynaud's disease, causes arteries to spasm and temporary restriction of blood flow
- Renal artery disease affects the blood flow to and from your kidneys, which may cause high blood pressure
- Blood clotting disorders, where blood clots form too rapidly or not quickly enough, leading to excessive clotting or bleeding
- Venous blood clot, can break and become hazardous if they move to the pulmonary artery
- Buerger's disease, which can cause blood clots and inflammation, usually in the legs, and which may lead to gangrene formation
- In ischemic stroke, blood clot moves to the brain and result in damage
Symptoms of Cardiovascular disease ICD 10
In CVD, symptoms are likely to vary depending on specific conditions. Some medical conditions, such as hypertension or type 2 diabetes, may cause no symptoms at the initial stage. However, usual signs of an underlying cardiovascular problem include:
- Pain or discomfort in the arms, elbows, left shoulder, jaw, or back
- Pain or pressure in the chest that may be an indication of angina
- Nausea and fatigue with shortness of breath
- Cold sweats, lightheadedness, or dizziness
Cardiovascular disease causes
Several CVD types occur as a compilation of atherosclerosis. The circulatory system damage can result from diabetes and other specific health conditions such as an inflammatory process (including myocarditis), a virus, or a structural defect present from birth (such as congenital heart disease).
Cardiovascular diseases often result from hypertension or high blood pressure, with no symptoms. Therefore, people need to undergo regular screening to check their blood pressure.
Tips to prevent CVD
Several CVD forms are preventable, and It is crucial to address the following risk factors:
- High blood pressure, or hypertension,
- Radiation therapy, poor sleep hygiene, sleep apnea
- High blood cholesterol, or hyperlipidemia,
- Physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes
- Smoking, stress, excessive alcohol consumption
- A high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet
- Air pollution, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or other specific disorders causing reduced lung function
Some practical ways to prevent CVD include eating fresh fruits or vegetables; reducing alcohol and tobacco consumption, lessening the use of salt, sugar, and saturated fat intake; and avoiding a sedentary lifestyle, especially for children.
Adopting damaging lifestyle habits, including having a high-sugar diet and not doing much physical activity, may not cause CVD. At the same time, an individual is still young, as the effects of these conditions are cumulative. However, continuous exposure to the risk factors mentioned above can contribute to CVD development later in life.
Treatment options available for Cardiovascular diseases
CVD treatments largely depend upon the type of CVD you have and the level at which it has advanced. In case you have a heart infection, your medical healthcare provider will prescribe an antibiotic.
While in case of plaque buildup, your doctor may take a two-extended approach: prescribe a drug that can help lower your risk for more plaque buildup and suggest you adopt healthy lifestyle changes.
Healthy lifestyle changes can help prevent CVD and other several conditions. They can also aid in treating the disease and prevent it from getting worse. Following are some lifestyle changes you must consider:
Get regular exercise: Even if you do 150 minutes of exercise from moderate to intense every week, it can help you keep your heart fit and enhance its functioning.
- Manage body weight: If you lose 5 to 10 percent of your body, it may help reduce the risk of developing CVD.
- Eat a heart-healthy diet: Consuming foods that contain polyunsaturated fats and Omega-3, including oily fish together with fruits & vegetables, can reduce the risk of developing CVD and support heart health. If you reduce saturated fat, processed food, salt, and added sugar intake, you will get similar results.
- Quit smoking: Smoking is a prominent risk factor for almost all CVD types. Although quitting can be challenging, small steps can drastically reduce the damaging effects on the heart. Also, reduce alcohol consumption.
Medications for Cardiovascular Diseases
An individual may require medication to treat specific types of CVD. Your medical healthcare professional may prescribe medications that can control or cure your cardiovascular disease.
Medicines may also help to slow down or stop the risk of complications. The exact drug you are prescribed depends upon several factors such as age, sex, medical condition, and your response to the initial phase of treatment with any medication.
Surgery or invasive procedures
In some CVD cases, surgery or a medical procedure is required to treat the issue and prevent the condition from spreading with worsening symptoms. For example, in the case of arteries blockage due to plaque buildup, your surgeon may insert a stent in your artery to regulate regular blood flow.
WHO on Cardiovascular Diseases
According to WHO and other reliable reports, CVD is the leading cause of death at an alarming rate worldwide. We need to take preventive measures and be careful about the increasing risk. These conditions are likely to be prevalent in the global mortality rate, so we should care for ourselves and our loved ones.